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Eye Care

Our Eye Exam

Importance of Regular Eye Exams

The American Optometric Association (AOA) recommends that most people have an eye exam every one to two years, depending upon age and health. An annual eye exam is one of the most important diagnostic and preventative measures you can take to protect your vision and health. If you are in a higher-risk category for eye disease or complications your eye doctor may recommend more frequent exams. If you notice a change in your vision or receive an injury to your eye, you should contact your eye care professional immediately.

Comprehensive/ Medical Eye Exam

1) Case History

Documents an individual’s chief complaint and/or reason for the visit. This includes a review of the patient’s medical and ocular health history, current medications, working environment, hobbies, etc. Patient will be asked to describe any vision problems they are experiencing.

2) Visual Acuity Testing

This test checks the quality (sharpness) of vision and one’s ability to see clearly at all distances. During this exam, you will be asked to read letters or characters on an eye chart with each eye. The smaller the letters that can be distinguished, the better your visual acuity (at distance and near).

3) Pupil Responses

This test examines the transmission of information (light) to and from the brain; and how quickly the brain responds to light stimuli.

4) Depth Perception

The appearance of depth is created when both eyes focus in the same plane simultaneously.

5) Color Vision Testing

6) External Eye Health Evaluation-"Biomicroscopy”

Examination of outer eye structures for signs of possible dysfunction or diseases.

7) Internal Eye Health Evaluation- “Ophthalmoscopy”

Examination of the inner structures of the eyes with an instrument that illuminates and magnifies the interior eye. Conditions such as cataracts, diabetes, or hypertension can be detected by your doctor during this evaluation.

8) Peripheral Vision Field Screening

Peripheral vision is the area of vision lying just outside the line of sight to either side of the face. It is extremely important to evaluate and prevent any obstruction to one’s peripheral vision, especially for activities such as driving and sports.

9) Present Prescription Evaluation

Evaluation of current prescription.

10)  Objective and Subjective Refraction

The degree of nearsightedness, farsightedness, or astigmatism is determined during this test. A series of lenses are used and adjusted before your eyes to determine the best correction. This tests the patient’s ability to focus light rays exactly on the retina at distances far and near. This examination is conducted to determine the appropriate eyewear prescriptions.

11) Binocular and Ocular Mobility Testing Visual Coordination

Test for eye coordination and muscle control in all angles of gaze.

12) Tests of Accommodation and/or Near Point Refraction, Focusing Ability

These tests measure the eye’s ability to change focus by stimulating and relaxing the demand for different viewing tasks.

13) Tonometry/ Glaucoma Screening

Measures the internal fluid pressure of the eye. It is an important test in detecting glaucoma since high pressure of the eye may indicate the presence or higher risk of glaucoma.

14) Dilation

A dilated fundus exam is highly recommended. It is the application of eye drops to temporarily enlarge the pupil, permitting a better view of the posterior eye. The doctor can only see 45% of the eye without dilation. By examining the entire inside of the eye, the doctor can see problems that you cannot feel or see until they impair your vision. There are many conditions that warrant dilation, for example:

  • Sudden vision loss
  • Flashes and floaters
  • Cataracts
  • Diabetes or other systemic conditions
  • Unexplained headaches
  • Certain systemic medications
  • Family history of eye disease
  • Eye (ocular) injury

15) Assessment and Recommendations

The Doctor will summarize the results of your eye exam, educate you on the findings and issue a prescription for eyeglasses and/or contact lenses. The Doctor will also prescribe medications, or recommend surgical intervention if needed.

Plan Your Visit

The truth is every member of your family should have their eyes examined at least once every year, regardless if you are experiencing eye problems or not.

Healthy eyes and good vision can make school, work, and play a lot easier and more enjoyable. Below are some basic guidelines involved in our eye examinations. Please contact us to schedule an appointment.

1. Schedule An Appointment:

  • We recommend that you schedule an appointment for eye examinations and contact lens check-ups.Same day appointments are available. In the event of an emergency, we will make every effort to expedite your visit with our Doctors.
  • When you schedule an appointment, an associate will ask for some important information to help facilitate your visit.
  • Address, phone number, date of birth,
  • Social security number
  • Insurance carrier and ID number
  • E-mail address to alert you of upcoming promotions and to remind you of your next examination.

  • We participate in most insurance plans and will have authorization of your insurance benefits prior to your appointment whenever possible. Therefore, it is always important to share all insurance information with us and bring all necessary insurance cards. We will notify you before your appointment if we discover that you are not eligible to use your insurance benefits at this time.
  • Approximate time expectations are:
  • Comprehensive eye examination and eyeglass selection - 1 Hour
  • Comprehensive eye examination and fitting for contact lenses (new wearer) - 1.5 Hours

2. Your Visit

Both of our Doctors of Optometry are Board Certified and licensed to therapeutically treat glaucoma and other eye conditions.

Case History:

You'll be asked to fill out a Patient History Form. This is used to gather general information such as medical history, eye history, family history, current medications, allergies, etc.

Pre Screening:

Our Optometric Assistant will review your Patient History and will conduct simple prescreening tests designed to provide our Doctors with additional eye health information. The Doctors will evaluate the information and pre-screening tests before your examination.

Comprehensive Eye Examination:

The Doctor will evaluate your visual acuity, examine the anterior and posterior segments of the eye, as well as its surrounding tissue. You will be asked to read an eye chart at a distance with each eye separately. Your eyes will be evaluated for binocular alignment and the ability of the eyes to move and coordinate properly.

The Doctor will then determine the necessity of a prescription for corrective lenses. A highly recommended test in checking eye health is a Dilated Fundus Evaluation (DFE), commonly referred to as dilation. Dilation allows the Doctor to inspect the retina and internal components of the eye in greater detail by enlarging (dilating) the pupil through the instillation of pharmaceutical eye drops. Through the dilated pupil, early signs of many ocular and systemic diseases may be detected that would otherwise go unnoticed. Ocular disorders such as glaucoma, cataracts, optic neuritis and retinal detachment, can be better detected and managed through a DFE. Additionally, ocular manifestations of the systemic diseases such as diabetes, hypertension, multiple sclerosis, AIDS and thyroid disorders may be detected during a DFE. This leads to earlier and more effective treatments and improved outcomes and quality of life. Following the conclusion of the examination, a treatment plan will be determined, and if necessary, you will be given referrals and additional recommendations to ensure your eye health.

3. Eyeglasses

If eyeglasses are needed, one of the Eyewear Stylists will help you select the frames that meet your needs and lifestyle.

  • Measurements will be taken to ensure that your new frame and lenses will look great and provide you with the sharpest and clearest vision.
  • Your insurance plan benefits will also be discussed, when applicable.

4. Contact Lenses

  • If you also want contact lenses, please discuss this with our Doctors. If contact lenses are right for you, we will teach you the proper insertion and removal of contact lenses, as well as the care and cleaning techniques necessary to maintain your contact lenses.
  • If you wear contact lenses, please leave them out of your eyes for 24 hours prior to your scheduled exam, and bring your current contact lens prescription to your exam.
  • Your insurance plan benefits will also be discussed when applicable.
  • Fitting children under the age of 18 for contact lenses requires parental/guardian consent.

5. Accessories/Virtual Eyewear Styling

 We have created a unique and fun way for you to discover what frames look best on you. Our Virtual Eyewear Selector allows our patients to use a digital image of their own face to experiment and try on frames. Patients can instantly see how each style fits and compliments the shape of their face and their skin tone.  We also carry a comprehensive line of eyewear accessories including cleaning kits and fashionable lifestyle cases.

6. Deposit Policy

Payment for all services including eye examinations, contact lens examinations, and contact lens checks are required at the time services are provided.

100% deposit is required to order eyeglasses or contact lenses.

Insurance Deposit Policy

100% of the patients balance is required after Insurance Benefits have been applied. We accept the following forms of payment: Cash, Personal Check, and most major credit cards

Eye Anatomy and Conditions

Interactive Eye Disease Application

This is an educational tool for patients to observe what a healthy eye looks like with a detailed cross section of the human eye. Patients can select from eye diseases, such as glaucoma, cataracts, macular degeneration and diabetic retinopathy. When a disease is chosen an animation explaining the disease appears on the screen, informing users about the nature of the disease, causes and other useful information.

Eye Conditions

Eye Anatomy


The thin moist tissue that lines the inner surfaces of the eyelids and the outer surface of the outer eye (sclera).


The clear outer covering of the eye known as the window of the eye, it plays an important role in focusing images.


A transparent part of the eye that brings together rays of light,
allowing them to focus on the retina.


In the eye, a round hole formed by the iris that regulates what light passes into the eye. Light must pass through the pupil to get to the retina.


The light sensitive part of the eye that detects images and transmits them to the brain through the optic nerve.


The tough white outer layer of the eyeball. It helps to protect the entire eyeball.


A general term that denotes poor vision in an otherwise healthy eye, which cannot be corrected by eyeglasses or contact lenses; also known as ‘lazy eye’. It is the loss or lack of central vision (20/20) in one eye or the inability of the eye to focus accurately.


A common disorder in which distorted vision is caused by an uneven curvature one or more of the eye’s refractive surfaces (i.e. cornea or lens) is not spherical or symmetrical resulting in two different points of focus being formed in the same eye. Vertical but not horizontal lines are in focus, or vice versa. Diagonal lines may also seem out of focus. Astigmatism sometimes occurs in conjunction with nearsightedness or farsightedness. Depending on the severity of astigmatism, it may not be noticeable or it may cause just a slight blur in vision. If left untreated, astigmatism can cause eyestrain or headaches.  More serious degrees produce blurred and distorted vision (ghost images) for both distant and near objects. Astigmatism can be corrected with eyeglasses or contact lenses. Refractive surgery may correct astigmatism, depending on severity. Treatment should always be discussed with a professional, call our office and schedule an appointment today.

Blindness or Low Vision

Blindness affects 3.3 million Americans age 40 and over, or one in 28, according to a recent study. This figure is projected to reach 5.5 million by the year 2020.


The lens of the eye is normally clear. When it becomes cloudy or opaque by thickened tissue, usually in old age, it is called a cataract . It usually develops gradually and without pain as the lens inside the eye loses transparency and the lens material yellows. This is often thought of as a part of the natural aging process. However, cataracts may also result from exposure to ultraviolet light, injury, medications, heredity, disease or birth defects. Cataracts prevent the lens from properly focusing light on the retina, at the back of the eye, resulting in a loss of vision.

As cataracts grow larger and cloud more of your lens, more noticeable symptoms will develop. These symptoms include cloudy or blurred vision, colors that seem faded, sensitivity to light and glare, poor night vision, dark spots or shadows, double vision and distorted images. These symptoms can also be a sign of other eye problems.

Cataracts are the leading cause of visual disability in people over 65. If the cataract blurs your vision severely enough to interfere with your daily routine, it is crucial that you speak with an eyecare professional immediately. At the onset of cataract formation, corrective lenses may help minimize the impact. However, the eye's internal lens may eventually lose so much transparency that surgical removal of the clouded lens is necessary to restore vision.Some medical treatments include surgical replacement of the natural lens with an artificial lens or implant. Cataracts are usually treated on an outpatient basis.


The term colorblindness suggests that "colorblind" individuals cannot see certain colors. However, inherited color blindness is a genetic condition in which an individual cannot distinguish between certain colors. It is normally diagnosed early on in children and occurs more often in males than females.

Computer Vision Syndrome (CVS)

CVS is caused by our eyes and brain reacting differently to characters on the computer screen than they do to printed (written) characters. If you spend more than two hours each day in front of a computer screen you likely experience some symptoms of CVS. These may include headaches, loss of focus, dry eyes, fatigue, burning or tired eyes, double vision, blurred vision, and neck and shoulder pain. As our dependence on computers continues to grow, an increasing number of people are seeking medical attention for eye strain and irritation, along with back, neck, shoulder, and wrist soreness.

These problems are more noticeable with computer tasks than other near work because your computer screen projects images formed by tiny dots, called pixels which constantly change, forcing your eyes to constantly refocus. This constant adjustment caused strain on your eyes, causing your eyesight to become distorted or blurred. CVS can be caused from the glare of overhead lights, or poor lighting, dry eyes caused by infrequent blinking, focusing close for long periods of time, the screen may reflect glare or ultraviolet lights poor screen resolution, etc.

Computer Vision Syndrome can be treated with a pair of computer glasses, which are different from glasses used for other visual needs. CVS glasses allow your eyes to focus easily by reducing the glare on the computer screen. Other ways to deter the symptoms of CVS are to set up your work area in such a way that it is easy to view your computer screen, which should be straight in front of you, about 24 inches away from your eyes, and out of the suns glare. In addition, you may use a desk lamp to create a more focused light where you are working.

Signs and Symptoms

  • Blurred near vision
  • Difficulty focusing from close to far and back again
  • Sore, irritated eyes dry eyes
  • Red eyes
  • Eye fatigue
  • Headaches that disappear after a period of rest
  • Irritation and discomfort while wearing contact lenses
  • Soreness and pain in the neck, shoulder and back.

Detection and Diagnosis

It is important to provide our Eye Doctors with detail about your work environment, work habits, and detail about the symptoms and their patterns. Bring your prescription glasses with you so the Eye Doctors can determine if they are appropriate for computer work.


The three main areas that should be addressed when treating CVS patients are: eye-related problems, work environment and posture.

Eye-Related Problems

  • Make sure the glasses are the correct prescription and designed for working at a computer. Patients who wear bifocals may find themselves keeping their head in an uncomfortable position in order to see the screen. Our Eye Doctors will determine the glasses best suited for the task, and if necessary, prescribe glasses with an adjusted bifocal height and width.
  • Blink frequently and instill artificial tears as needed. One of the biggest complaints of patients with CVS is dry, irritated, red eyes. This is common because we tend to blink less when reading.
  • Stop periodically and look away from the computer screen. Looking up relaxes the eye's focusing mechanism and reduces the problem of eye strain.

Work Environment

  • Sit approximately 24" from the monitor. Sitting at the appropriate working distance from the computer screen maximizes the clarity of the text and images.
  • Adjust the monitor so the center is slightly below eye level. This keeps the neck in the most natural position and reduces soreness and fatigue.
  • Minimize glare on the screen. Arrange the lighting and desk to eliminate glare on the monitor. An anti-reflective coating on your eyeglass lenses or a screen placed over the monitor is helpful.

Posture and Work Habits

  • Maintain good posture. Sitting up straight with your feet on the floor can reduce back stress. Use a cushion for the lower back if necessary.
  • Keep your wrists straight when typing. Avoid resting your wrists on the keyboard.
  • Place the mouse and keyboard at the same level, keeping them close to the body. The keyboard level should at a slightly lower level than the desk.


It is an inflammation of the conjunctiva, the thin transparent layer that lines the inner eyelid and covers the white part of the eye.

Diabetic Retinopathy

Anyone with diabetes is at risk to develop diabetic retinopathy. Diabetic retinopathy affects more than 3.6 million individuals to date.

High blood sugar associated with diabetes can damage the small blood vessels that nourish your eyes retina, the delicate, light sensitive lining of the back of the eye. These blood vessels may begin to swell and leak. This damage is called diabetic retinopathy. Early stages may cause blurred or dim vision, or they may produce no visual symptoms at all. As the disease progresses, you may notice a cloudiness of vision, blind spots or floaters in the field of vision. In fact, the longer someone has diabetes, the more likely he or she is to have retinopathy.

Uncontrolled Diabetes may lead to new blood vessel growth on top of the retina. These blood vessels can develop into scar tissue, pulling the retina away from the back of the eye. This can lead to blindness if untreated. Additionally, irregular blood vessels can grow on the iris, leading to glaucoma.

Everyone who has diabetes is at risk for developing diabetic retinopathy. You may not notice any change in your vision in its early stages, which is why regular eye examinations are extremely important. If detected early on, Diabetic Retinopathy can be treated with laser therapy to stop blood vessels from leaking and end new blood vessel growth. If diabetic retinopathy has caused your body to form a cataract, it may be corrected surgically.


Double Vision.

Dry Eye Syndrome

One of the most common problems reported to eye doctors. Dry eye is a persistent lack of sufficient lubrication and moisture in the eye, causing irritation to ocular inflammation of the anterior (front) tissues of the eye. It occurs when your eyes lack the proper quality or quantity of tears.

Relentless burning in your eyes, dryness, and scratching are signs of dry eye syndrome, or you may have the feeling like there's something in your eye. Another symptom can be watery eyes because the excessive dryness can stimulate the reflex of watery component of your eye's tears. The Doctor may prescribe artificial tears to relieve the burning, dryness, and scratching.


Floaters are what appear to be small spots or fibers moving in your field of vision. But they are actually small clumps of gel or cells inside the vitreous, the clear jelly-like fluid that fills the inside of your eye. They may look like strands, webs, specks, or other shapes, but they are shadows cast on the retina. Floaters are inside your eye, so they move with your eyes when you try to see them. You may see flashes of light, but these occur more in older people as the vitreous degenerates and pulls on the retina.
Most floaters are merely annoying, yet harmless, and many fade over time. However, if you suddenly see floaters, or if they are accompanied by flashes of light or peripheral vision loss, it could be a sign of serious condition such as a retinal detachment. The retina can tear or detach if the shrinking vitreous gel pulls away from the wall of the eye, causing bleeding in the eye that may appear as new floaters. Floating spots or flashing lights lasting more than thirty minutes is considered an emergency and requires immediate attention.


Glaucoma is one of the most common and severe eye disorders of people over 40. Glaucoma is an eye disease that gradually steals sight without symptoms, pain, or warning. Typically characterized by high pressure within the eye, either from abnormally high production of fluid or the passages that allow the normal fluid in the eye to drain become clogged and blocked. This results in the amount of fluid in the eye building up and causing increased pressure inside the eye. This increased pressure damages the retinal nerve fibers and the optic nerve, which connects the eye to the brain. The optic nerve is part of your eye that transmits information between retina and brain. When the optic nerve is damaged, it results in less information sent to the brain and a loss in vision. Most, but not all types of glaucoma are characterized by elevated intraocular pressure, which is not the disease itself but the most important risk factor for the development of glaucoma.

Chronic glaucoma has many times been referred to as the ‘silent thief of sight’ as there are no warning signs. In glaucoma the initial vision loss is gradual and painless, starting with peripheral vision loss and gradually moving into more central vision loss (blindness).  Roughly half of Americans who have chronic glaucoma do not know it. Glaucoma reduces your peripheral vision so slowly, that once you notice it, permanent damage is done.

Acute glaucoma, can produce sudden symptoms such as, headaches, severe pain in and around the eyes, haloes around lights, red eyes, nausea, vomiting, and vision loss. These attacks may last for a few hours, and go away, then return again, each taking a part of your field of vision.
This is considered an emergency and requires immediate attention

Glaucoma is the leading cause of blindness in the U.S.  If left untreated permanent damage to the optic nerve and blindness will occur. There are 2.29 million American adults with glaucoma. Two million more may not know that they have the disease. At this time there is no cure for glaucoma. The best way to prevent vision loss from glaucoma is early diagnosis and treatment. Glaucoma is usually treated with eye drops and medications. Severe cases may require surgical correction.

Hyperopia  (Farsightedness)

The opposite of myopia. Hyperopia is a vision condition, in which the eye focuses light rays behind, rather than on, the retina. This results in difficulty in seeing near objects clearly, while distant objects appear in focus or normal. This condition is the result of an eye that is too short, or a cornea has too little curvature, thus lacking the necessary refractive power to focus light correctly on the retina.

Adults and children who are farsighted may experience eyestrain or headaches. They may squint or feel tired when performing tasks at close range, such as reading and writing, the words appear blurred and fuzzy. Many children who are farsighted will pass school vision screening that measure distance.

Farsightedness can be corrected with glasses or contact lenses.  You may need to wear your corrective all the time, or when doing tasks close up. Call our office and schedule an appointment today if you or your child is experiencing any of these symptoms.

Macular Degeneration

Macular Degeneration, often called AMD, is a common cause of decreased vision in adults over 60 years of age. It is evident damage to the thinning retinal tissue, which is the light sensitive tissue in the back of the eye, and deposits of yellowish matter (waste products) in the layers underlying the macula, the central point of focus in the retina. This causes degeneration of the nerve endings in the macula area, which includes the fovea (20/20 point). This condition currently affects two million Americans and is the leading cause of blindness in America.

The macula allows you to read, drive, and do other activities requiring fine, sharp, and straight-ahead vision. Without a healthy macula, seeing detail or vivid color is not possible.
There are two types of Macular Degeneration. The dry form, which is responsible for 90% of cases, involves the tissue of the macula becoming thin and stops functioning properly. This type is thought to occur as part of the aging process of the eye in some people. In the wet form, which is less common, fluids from newly formed blood vessels leak under the macula and cause significant vision loss.

Macular degeneration produces painless loss of vision which can occur slow or suddenly. Straight lines may look wavy, vision seems fuzzy, or there are shadowy areas in your central vision. These may be early signs of AMD.

An eyecare professional will often detect early signs of macular degeneration before you experience any of these symptoms.
There is no cure for macular degeneration, but prescription eyewear can sometimes improve vision and eye vitamins can slow down progression. Remember, early detection is the most important factor in determining if you can be treated effectively. Call our office and schedule an appointment today.

Myopia (Nearsightedness)

The opposite of hyperopia.  Myopia is a vision condition in which the eye focuses light rays in front of, rather than on the retina, resulting in near objects being seen clearly and distant objects being blurred. Occurs if your eyeball is too long or the cornea has too much curvature, so the light entering your eye is not focused correctly. It is a very common vision condition that affects nearly 30% of the U.S. population.

Adults who are nearsighted often experience eyestrain or headaches, and might squint or feel fatigued when using the computer, driving or playing sports for example. Children who are nearsighted may complain of headaches, or you may notice them squinting when playing sports, or watching TV. They may do poorly at school because they cannot see the material on the blackboard clearly. Nearsightedness is a common problem that has a tendency to run in families and can affect girls and boys equally.

Nearsightedness may be corrected with glasses, contact lenses or refractive surgery. Nearsightedness can progress quickly in children, which is why regular eye examinations are important. Depending on the severity of your vision problem, you may need to corrective lenses all the time, or only when you need distance vision.

Call our office and schedule an appointment today if you or your child is experiencing any of these symptoms.

Ocular Hypertension

An increase in the pressure in the eye that is above the range considered normal with no detectable changes in vision or damage to the structure of the eye. The term is used to distinguish people with elevated eye pressure from those with glaucoma. It can occur in people of all ages, but it occurs more frequently in African Americans, those over 40 and those with family history of ocular hypertension and/or glaucoma. It is more common in those who are nearsighted or have diabetes.

Presbyopia (Aging Eyes)

Presbyopia is a condition in which the aging eye is unable to focus on near objects, thus the eye’s decrease in ‘accommodation’. It typically begins around age 40. A condition given when the crystalline lenses in the eyes lose flexibility and do not change shape as easily as they should. Presbyopia causes people to have increased difficulty with near vision and reading small print. When presbyopia develops, people may need to hold newspapers, magazines, books, etc, at arm's length to focus clearly. They may experience eyestrain or headaches work on projects close up.

Bifocal or progressive lenses may correct presbyopia. Reading glasses may also be an option. Unlike bifocals and progressives, which usually are worn all day, reading glasses are worn occasionally when during close work. Contact lens wearers may use bifocal contact lenses or reading glasses that are worn while their contacts are in. Regardless of ones prior vision correction needs, presbyopia is considered a normal and almost inevitable part of the aging process.

Retinal Detachment

A separation of sensory retina from underlying pigment epithelium disrupts visual cell structure and disturbs vision.


A misalignment of the two eyes, in which they point at different positions, also known as ‘crossed eyes’. One or both eyes turn in, out, up or down, independent of the other eye. The condition in which binocular fixation is not present under normal seeing conditions, for example, the line of sight of one eye does or does not intersect the other at the object of fixation. Strabismus is more common in children and eyeglasses, vision training, and/or surgery can correct it.

Children, Vision and Learning

When parents fail to get regular vision examinations for their children, they are putting more than eyesight at risk. They are threatening their children's educational development as well. One out of every four children from ages 5 to 12 has a vision problem that could affect their educational performance.
One in every 20 preschool age child in the U.S. has a vision problem that, if left uncorrected could lead to permanent loss of sight, according to Prevent Blindness America. Early detection and treatment of vision problems is key in helping to prevent blindness and may help a child reach his or her full potential.

child in glasses

The American Optometric Association recommends the following examination guideline for early detection of visual problems:

  • Infants- By 6 months of age
  • PreSchoolers-  At ages 3 and 5 (before the beginning of first grade)
  • School Age- 5 to 19, as directed by the eye doctor

Eye Innovations proudly supports the InfantSEE public health program, managed by Optometry's Charity. Dr. Archima Major will provide a comprehensive infant eye and vision assessment at no charge to the parent(s)/guardian(s) within the first year of life. The Infant SEE assessment offers early detection of potential eye and vision problems as a complement to the eye screening conducted in a pediatric well-care visit. Call to schedule an assessment with Dr. Archima Major for your infant today.

Behaviors that May Signify a Problem

While parents are often quick to schedule regular physical checkups for their children, they might overlook the importance of a professional eye examination. Screenings offered at schools are designed to identify problems with a child's vision, however, they simply are not thorough enough to expose problems of eye muscle coordination, eye disease, peripheral vision or short-comings in near-distance vision---areas very important to the learning process.

Parents, do not  wait until your child is reported to having visual problems. Children have a difficult time recognizing whether they have a problem because they have no basis for comparison. With some visual skills reaching full development at about 5 years of age, correction after this point becomes more difficult. Visual defects discovered before this age can be treated.

Pay attention to these key signals which can indicate vision problems in you child:

  • Excessive blinking or rubbing the eyes
  • Complaining often of headaches and dizziness
  • Squinting
  • Reading from books held unusually close to the face
  • Twisting or tilting of the head to favor one eye
  • Eyes pointing in different directions
  • Blurred or double vision
  • Ability to read only for a short period of time
  • Inability to judge distance properly (bumping into things)
  • Using a finger to follow words when reading
  • Poor school or athletic performance

Eye Safety for Children

Most childhood accidents occur at home, many with toys. Children spend a great deal of time playing with their toys, so you need to make sure those toys are safe for eyes. Avoid toys that shoot objects in the air, such as slingshots, dart guns or arrows, for children under 6, and closely supervise any child playing with such toys. If your older child plays with a chemistry set or woodworking tools, give him or her safety goggles.

Sports-related eye injuries are topping 100,000 per year, and almost all are preventable by protective eyewear. Children are especially vulnerable to an eye injury because they do not know that their vision, and possibly a lifetime of healthy vision, is at stake. For children, eye injuries happen mainly while playing. They should wear eye protection for any sports and recreational activities that uses a projectile or racket, involves rough contact with other players, or requires travel at high speed.

Polycarbonate lenses are an impact resistant material, ultraviolet protection, and certain frames have been specifically developed to protect the eyes during play and sports. Ask our Eye Doctors about the best eye protection for your child.

UV Protection for Children

Children may not be as interested as adults are in the fashion aspect of sunglasses. However, they need sun protection just as much as adults do and sometimes even more, since they are spending more time playing outdoors and in direct sunlight and are therefore more susceptible to harmful UV rays. The sun can do as much damage to your eyes as it can to your skin. This is especially true for children, whose risk is higher because the lens in their eye does not filter as much UV light and because they spend so much time outside.
With that in mind, here are a few important points to keep in mind before you send your child out to play.

  • 80% of a person's lifetime exposure to UV occurs before age 18
  • The lenses in children eyes do not block as many UV rays as they do in adult eyes, putting them at increased risk for sun damage to their eyes
  • Although 82% of parents feel it is important for children to wear sunglasses and 91% feel sunscreen should be worn, children are two times more likely to wear sunscreen than they are sunglasses.
  • Almost 50% of parents report that their children "seldom" or "never" wear sunglasses with 100% UV protection.

Computer Vision Syndrome in Children

Many American children spend one to three hours per day on the computer, talking online, playing video games, or doing homework. Children are encouraged to use the computer starting at ages two and three.
A child's eyes can become stressed when sitting in front of a computer screen for long periods of time because the computer can force the child's vision to focus and strain more than any other task.
Parents need to be aware of the vision problems associated with computer work. Computer use forces fine motor skills from children whose young eyes are not well developed. Not until the visual system matures is the child able to effectively handle the stress of computers.
According to the American Optometric Association, the influence of computer use on a child's vision involves these factors:

  • Children have a narrow degree of self-awareness. They may be on a computer for hours with a small number of breaks. This extended activity can cause eye focusing and eye strain problems.
  • Children are incredibly adaptable. They assume that what they see is ‘normal’ - even if their vision is not. It is important for parents to monitor the time a child spends at a computer.
  • Children are smaller than adults. Computer workstations are usually set for adult use, this changes the viewing angle for children. Computer users should view the screen slightly downward. Children may experience neck, shoulder and/or back pain, because they have difficulty reaching the keyboard or placing their feet on the floor.

Many eyecare professionals deem that environmental stress of the indoor world rather than genetics is creating a nearsightedness epidemic. In fact, children who use computers before their visual systems are fully developed are susceptible to computer vision syndrome. CVS can be prevented by annual eye examinations, setting up computer workstations that will fit a child, position the monitor correctly, and watch your child closely. If you notice your child rubbing their eyes frequently, tilting their heads, complaining of headaches or their eyes are red, among other symptoms, call our office and schedule an appointment today. Do not take any chances with your child's eyes.

Latest Technology



A computerized screening device designed to detect refractive abnormalities in vision, such as nearsightedness, farsightedness, and astigmatism.


It aids in the detection of glaucoma by measuring the internal pressure of the eye.

Automated Visual Field Test

This test is used to detect deficiencies in central and peripheral vision. It electronically measures retinal function and sensitivity to light. It assists in the early detection of many disorders, including glaucoma, brain tumors, diabetic retinopathy, retinal detachments, and many other conditions which can manifest in the eye. All patients can benefit from the screening version of this exam. Important for people who have:

  • Headaches
  • See flashes of light and floaters
  • A history of diabetes
  • A history of high blood pressure
  • Heart problems and/ or circulatory problems
  • Taking various medications (Plaquenil, Prednisone, etc.)
  • A strong eyeglass prescription


It provides a computerized detailed mapping of the front curvature of the corneal surface.  This measurement enables the doctor to custom fit contact lens and aids in the detection of corneal disease.

retinal camera

Retinal Camera

It features an optical system that achieves detailed, high-resolution diagnostic images of the retina for accurate detection and monitoring of ocular conditions including diabetic retinopathy, glaucoma, and macular degeneration. It is the state-of-the-art way to look at your retina, which makes it much easier for doctors to monitor the health of your eyes.

  • Patient-friendly and educational, it can help your doctor detect early signs of eye and general health issue.
  • Quick and painless and, in many cases, does not require dilation.
  • Provides a permanent record of your retina for comparison from year to year.

Virtual Eyewear Selector

It allows patients to select from several distinct face shapes for men, women, and children to better choose the most complementary style of frame. Patients can use a digital image of their own face to experiment and try on frames. Patients can instantly see how each style fits and compliments the shape of their face and skin tone.

Laser Vision Correction

Laser in-situ keratomileusis (LASIK)

Laser refractive procedures may reduce an individual’s dependence on other forms of vision correction. A laser light is used to reduce or correct myopia, hyperopia and astigmatism. Statistics show that myopic or near sighted patients respond better to laser refractive surgery than those with other conditions. This procedure cannot correct presbyopia or the gradual inability to read small print or focus on close objects due to the aging process.

Photo-Refractive Keratotomy (PRK)

A noninvasive laser surgical procedure that reshapes the cornea, which is the major refractive surface of the eye, to correct a refractive error. The only approved process at this time is for myopia nearsightedness.

All Surgeries, including LASIK and PRK, are performed at pre-eminent eye centers of excellence, staffed by renowned ophthalmologists and surgeons using the latest, most advanced instrumentation.


Several vitamins, minerals, and phytochemicals have been shown in some research to be associated with reduced risk of cataracts and macular degeneration, as well as generally support healthy vision. When you shop for a daily dietary supplement, look for the following nutrients:

  • Vitamin C 250 mg
  • Vitamin E 200 mg
  • Beta-Carotene 5,000 IU
  • Zinc 25 mg
  • Lutein 10 mg
  • Zeaxanthin 500 mcg
  • Selenium 100 mcg
  • Calcium 500 mg
  • Folic acid 800 mcg
  • Thiamin 2 mg
  • Omega 3 Essential Fatty Acids 2,000-3,000 mg
  • Alpha Lipoic Acid 100 mg
  • N-Acetyl Cysteine 100 mg

A multiple vitamin will have many of these nutrients, and a multiple vitamin formulated for supporting healthy vision may have all of them. If not, all of these nutrients are available as separate dietary supplements.

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It features an optical system that achieves detailed, high-resolution diagnostic images of the retina for accurate detection and monitoring of ocular conditions ...


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